[RFC,2/2] docs: media: Debugging guide for the media subsystem

Message ID 20240529-b4-media_docs_improve-v1-2-9ddb111c4433@collabora.com (mailing list archive)
State New
Headers
Series Documentation: Debugging guide |

Commit Message

Sebastian Fricke May 29, 2024, 4:22 p.m. UTC
  Create a guides section for all documentation material, that isn't
strictly related to a specific piece of code.

Provide a guide for developers on how to debug code with a focus on the
media subsystem. This document aims to provide a rough overview over the
possibilities and a rational to help choosing the right tool for the
given circumstances.

Signed-off-by: Sebastian Fricke <sebastian.fricke@collabora.com>
---
 Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst | 477 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
 Documentation/media/guides/index.rst            |  11 +
 Documentation/media/index.rst                   |   1 +
 3 files changed, 489 insertions(+)
  

Comments

Hans Verkuil June 24, 2024, 11:23 a.m. UTC | #1
Hi Sebastian,

This is a good idea, but it needs more work.

The main change is that it needs to be split into two parts: debugging
driver issues while developing the driver, and debugging userspace issues
where you want to figure out why (typically) an ioctl fails.

On 29/05/2024 18:22, Sebastian Fricke wrote:
> Create a guides section for all documentation material, that isn't
> strictly related to a specific piece of code.
> 
> Provide a guide for developers on how to debug code with a focus on the
> media subsystem. This document aims to provide a rough overview over the
> possibilities and a rational to help choosing the right tool for the
> given circumstances.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Sebastian Fricke <sebastian.fricke@collabora.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst | 477 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  Documentation/media/guides/index.rst            |  11 +
>  Documentation/media/index.rst                   |   1 +
>  3 files changed, 489 insertions(+)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..8fee749e7e6a
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,477 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +.. include:: <isonum.txt>
> +
> +===================================================
> +Debugging and tracing in the media subsystem
> +===================================================
> +
> +This document serves as a starting point and lookup for debugging device
> +drivers in the media subsystem.
> +
> +.. contents::
> +    :depth: 3
> +
> +General debugging advice
> +========================
> +
> +Depending on the issue, a different set of tools is available to track down the
> +problem or even to realize whether there is one in the first place.
> +
> +As a first step you have to figure out what kind of issue you want to debug.
> +Depending on the answer, your methodology and choice of tools may vary.
> +Some typical issues are listed below. The list is not exhaustive.
> +
> +What is the issue?
> +------------------
> +1. Driver doesn't behave as expected
> +
> +   TBD
> +
> +2. Running out of memory
> +
> +  In this case you should use `Linux CLI tools <linux-tools_>`_ first to verify
> +  whether the issue stems from the Kernel or from userspace.
> +
> +  TBD
> +
> +3. Kernel panic
> +
> +  The kernel provides a number of `tools <kernel_panic_analysis_tools_>`_ to
> +  analyse a Kernel panic, use these first, once you have identified where the
> +  error occurs you can further analyse the issue by adding `debug logs <Printk
> +  & friends_>`_ to the codebase.
> +
> +4. Device doesn't probe
> +
> +   TBD
> +
> +5. Driver too slow
> +
> +  You should start with a `performance analysis <performance>`__, to pin down the problem area.

I'm not sure how useful this section is. Too vague, really.

> +
> +Is timing a factor?
> +-------------------
> +
> +It is important to understand if the problem you want to debug manifests itself
> +consistently (i.e. given a set of inputs you always get the same, incorrect
> +output), or inconsistently. If it manifests itself inconsistently, some timing
> +factor might be at play. If inserting delays into the code does change the
> +behavior, then quite likely timing is a factor.
> +
> +   In this case using a simple `printk`_ won't work, a similar alternative is
> +   too use `trace_printk`_, which logs the debug messages to the trace file

too -> to

> +   instead of the kernel log.
> +
> +Do I have root access to the system?
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +Are you easily able to replace the module in question or to install a new kernel?
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +.. _live_debug:
> +
> +Do I need to debug on a live system?
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +When the kernel is compiled with `Ftrace`_, this tool might be a good start, as you can trace specific functions to dial down to the sequence of actions that causes the misbehavior.
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +Is the outcome flaky?
> +---------------------
> +
> +We will call the outcome "flaky" if multiple iterations of the same routine with the same parameters result in different outcomes.
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +Available tools
> +===============
> +
> +Printk & friends
> +----------------
> +
> +These are derivatives of printf() with varying destination and support for being dynamically turned on or off, or lack thereof.
> +
> +.. _printk:
> +
> +**Simple printk**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The classic, this can be used to great effect for quick and dirty development
> +of new modules or to extract arbitrary necessary data for troubleshooting.
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_PRINTK` (usually enabled by default)
> +
> +**Pros**:
> +
> +- No need to learn anything, simple to use
> +- Easy to modify exactly to your needs (formatting of the data (See: `format specifiers <../../core-api/printk-formats.html#printk-specifiers>`__), visibility in the log)
> +- Can cause delays in the execution of the code (beneficial to confirm whether timing is a factor)
> +
> +**Cons**:
> +
> +- Requires rebuilding the kernel/module, (See: `live_debug`_)
> +- Can cause delays in the execution of the code
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../core-api/printk-basics.rst>`__
> +
> +.. _trace_printk:
> +
> +**Trace_printk**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE` & `#include <linux/ftrace.h>`
> +
> +A tiny bit less comfortable to use than `printk`_, because you will have to
> +read the messages from the trace file (See: `Reading the ftrace log`_ instead
> +of from the kernel log, but very useful when printk adds unwanted delays into
> +the code execution, causing issues to be flaky or hidden.)
> +
> +If the processing of this still causes timing issues then you can try `trace_puts()`.
> +
> +`Full Documentation <../../driver-api/basics.html#c.trace_printk>`__
> +
> +**dev_dbg / v4l2_dbg**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +- Difference between both?
> +
> +  - v4l2_dbg utilizes v4l2_printk under the hood, which further uses printk directly, thus it cannot be targeted by dynamic debug
> +  - dev_dbg can be targeted by dynamic debug
> +  - v4l2_dbg has a more specific prefix format for the media subsystem, while dev_dbg only highlights the driver name and the location of the log
> +
> +**The dev_debug module parameter**

This needs to be more prominent: it is very useful, esp. when debugging userspace problems.

It is also always available, and all you need is root access in order to write to dev_debug.

This is also mixed in with the various printk sections, but this should be a separate
section.

> +
> +Every video device provides a `dev_debug` parameter, which allows to get further insights into the IOCTLs in the background.
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../driver-api/media/v4l2-dev.html#video-device-debugging>`__
> +
> +**When is it appropriate to leave a debug print in the code?**
> +
> +Permanent debug statements have to be useful for a developer to troubleshoot
> +why the driver misbehaves. Judging that is a bit more of an art than a
> +science, but some guidelines are in the `Coding style guide
> +<../../process/coding-style.html#printing-kernel-messages>`__)
> +
> +**Custom printk**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Example:
> +::
> +
> +  #define core_dbg(fmt, arg...) do { \
> +	  if (core_debug) \
> +		  printk(KERN_DEBUG pr_fmt("core: " fmt), ## arg); \
> +	  } while (0)
> +
> +**When should you do this?**
> +
> +It is better to just use a `pr_debug()`, which can later be turned on/off with
> +dynamic debug. Additionally, a lot of drivers activate these prints via a
> +variable like `core_debug` set by a module parameter. However, Module
> +parameters `are not recommended anymore
> +<https://lkml.org/lkml/2024/3/27/163>`_.
> +
> +Dynamic debug
> +-------------
> +
> +Mechanism to filter what ends up in the kernel log by dis-/en-abling log
> +messages.
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_DEBUG`
> +
> +.. _valid_dyndbg_prints:
> +
> +Dynamic debug is only able to target:
> +
> +- `pr_debug()`
> +- `dev_dbg()`
> +- `print_hex_dump_debug()`
> +- `print_hex_dump_bytes()`
> +
> +Therefore the usability of this tool is quite limited in the media subsystem,
> +because, as of now, there is no uniform rule for adding debug prints to the codebase,
> +resulting in a variety of ways these prints are implemented.
> +
> +Also, note that most debug statements are implemented as a variation of
> +`dprintk`, which have to be activated via a parameter in respective module,
> +dynamic debug is unable to do that step for you.
> +
> +Here is one example, that enables all available `pr_debug()`'s within the file:
> +::
> +
> +  $ alias ddcmd='echo $* > /proc/dynamic_debug/control'
> +  $ ddcmd '-p; file v4l2-h264.c +p'
> +  $ grep =p /proc/dynamic_debug/control
> +   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:372 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_b =p "ref_pic_list_b%u (cur_poc %u%c) %s"
> +   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:333 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_p =p "ref_pic_list_p (cur_poc %u%c) %s\n"
> +
> +**When should you use this over** `Ftrace`_ **?**
> +
> +- When the code contains one of the :ref:`valid print statements <valid_dyndbg_prints_>`_ or when you have added multiple pr_debug() statements during development
> +- When timing is not an issue, meaning if multiple `pr_debug()` statements in the code won't cause delays
> +- When you care more about receiving specific log messages than tracing the pattern of how a function is called
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../admin-guide/dynamic-debug-howto.rst>`__

printk and friends is definitely for driver devs as you need to be able to recompile the kernel.

> +
> +Ftrace
> +------
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE`
> +
> +Trace whenever the `rkvdec_try_ctrl` function is called
> +::
> +
> +  $ cd /sys/kernel/tracing
> +  $ echo function > /sys/kernel/tracing/current_tracer
> +  $ echo rkvdec_try_ctrl > set_ftrace_filter
> +  $ echo 1 > tracing_on
> +  $ cat trace
> +   h264parse0:sink-6359    [001] ...1. 172714.547523: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +   h264parse0:sink-6359    [005] ...1. 172714.567386: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +
> +Find out from where the calls originate
> +::
> +
> +  $ echo 1 > options/func_stack_trace
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967762: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967773: <stack trace>
> +   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
> +   => try_or_set_cluster
> +   => try_set_ext_ctrls_common
> +   => try_set_ext_ctrls
> +   => v4l2_s_ext_ctrls
> +   => v4l_s_ext_ctrls
> +   ...
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985747: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985750: <stack trace>
> +   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
> +   => try_or_set_cluster
> +   => v4l2_ctrl_request_setup
> +   => rkvdec_run_preamble
> +   => rkvdec_h264_run
> +   => rkvdec_device_run
> +   ...
> +
> +Trace the children of a function call and show the return values (requires config `FUNCTION_GRAPH_RETVAL`)
> +::
> +
> +  echo function_graph > current_tracer
> +  echo rkvdec_h264_run > set_graph_function
> +  echo 4 > max_graph_depth
> +  echo do_interrupt_handler mutex_* > set_graph_notrace
> +  echo 1 > options/funcgraph-retval
> +   ...
> +   4)               |  rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec]() {
> +   4)               |    v4l2_ctrl_find [videodev]() {
> +   ...
> +   4)               |    rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
> +   4)   4.666 us    |      v4l2_m2m_next_buf [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0xffff000005782000 */
> +   ...
> +   4)               |      v4l2_ctrl_request_setup [videodev]() {
> +   4)   4.667 us    |        media_request_object_find [mc](); /* = 0xffff000005e3aa98 */
> +   4)   1.750 us    |        find_ref [videodev](); /* = 0xffff00000833b2a0 */
> +   ...
> +   4)   1.750 us    |      v4l2_m2m_buf_copy_metadata [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0x0 */
> +   4) ! 114.333 us  |    } /* rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
> +   4)   2.334 us    |    v4l2_h264_init_reflist_builder [v4l2_h264](); /* = 0x3e */
> +   ...
> +   4)               |    v4l2_h264_build_b_ref_lists [v4l2_h264]() {
> +   ...
> +   4)               |    rkvdec_run_postamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
> +   ...
> +   4) ! 444.208 us  |  } /* rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
> +
> +**Reading the ftrace log**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The `trace` file can be read just like any other file (`cat`, `tail`, `head`,
> +`vim`, etc.), the size of the file is limited by the `buffer_size_kb` (``echo
> +1000 > buffer_size_kb``). The `trace_pipe` will behave similar to the `trace`
> +file, but whenever you read from the file the content is consumed.
> +
> +**Kernelshark**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +`Kernelshark documentation <https://kernelshark.org/Documentation.html>`_
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../trace/ftrace.rst>`__
> +
> +DebugFS
> +-------
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DEBUG_FS` & `#include <linux/debugfs.h>`
> +
> +DebugFS differs from the other approaches of debugging, as it doesn't write messages to the kernel log nor add traces to the code. Instead it allows the developer to handle a set of files.
> +With these files you can either store values of variables or make register/memory dumps or you can make these files writable and modify values/settings in the driver.
> +Possible use-cases among others:
> +
> +- Store register values
> +- Keep track of variables
> +- Store errors
> +- Store settings
> +- Toggle a setting like debug on/off
> +- Error injection
> +
> +This is especially useful, when the size of a data dump would be hard to digest as
> +part of the general kernel log (for example when dumping raw bitstream data) or
> +when you are not interested in all the values all the time, but with the
> +possibility to inspect them.
> +
> +The general idea is:
> +
> +- Create a directory during probe (`struct dentry *parent = debugfs_create_dir("my_driver", NULL);`)
> +- Create a file (`debugfs_create_u32("my_value", 444, parent, &my_variable);`)
> +
> +  - In this example the file is found in `/sys/kernel/debug/my_driver/my_value` (with read permissions for user/group/all)
> +  - any update of `my_variable` will update the value in the file
> +
> +- Clean up the folder when removing the device (`debugfs_remove_recursive(parent);`)
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../filesystems/debugfs.rst>`__
> +
> +Perf & alternatives
> +-------------------
> +
> +The tools mentioned above provide ways to inspect kernel code, results, variable values, etc.
> +Sometimes you have to find out first where to look and for those cases a box of performance tracking tools can help you to frame the issue.
> +
> +.. _performance:
> +
> +**Why should you do a performance analysis?**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +A performance analysis is a good first step when among other reasons:
> +
> +- you cannot define the issue
> +- you do not know where it occurs
> +- the running system should not be interrupted or it is a remote system, where you cannot install a new module/kernel
> +
> +.. _linux-tools:
> +
> +**How to do a simple analysis with linux tools?**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +For the start of a performance analysis, you can start with the usual tools like:
> +
> +- `top` / `htop` / `atop` (*get an overview of the system load, see spikes on specific processes*)
> +- `mpstat -P ALL` (*look at the load distribution among CPUs*)
> +- `iostat -x` (*observe input and output devices utilization and performance*)
> +- `vmstat` (*overview of memory usage on the system*)
> +- `pidstat` (*similar to* `vmstat` *but per process, to dial it down to the target*)
> +- `strace -tp $PID` (*once you know the process, you can figure out how it communicates with the Kernel*)
> +
> +These should help to figure out restrict the areas to look at sufficiently.
> +
> +**Diving deeper with perf**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The **perf** tool provides a series of metrics and events to further dial down on issues.
> +
> +Prerequisite: TBD
> +
> +Gather statistics data for a decoding job: (This example is on a RK3399 SoC with the rkvdec codec driver using the `fluster test suite <https://github.com/fluendo/fluster>`__)
> +::
> +
> +  perf stat -d python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1
> +  ...
> +  Performance counter stats for 'python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1 -v':
> +
> +           7794.23 msec task-clock:u                     #    0.697 CPUs utilized
> +                 0      context-switches:u               #    0.000 /sec
> +                 0      cpu-migrations:u                 #    0.000 /sec
> +             11901      page-faults:u                    #    1.527 K/sec
> +         882671556      cycles:u                         #    0.113 GHz                         (95.79%)
> +         711708695      instructions:u                   #    0.81  insn per cycle              (95.79%)
> +          10581935      branches:u                       #    1.358 M/sec                       (15.13%)
> +           6871144      branch-misses:u                  #   64.93% of all branches             (95.79%)
> +         281716547      L1-dcache-loads:u                #   36.144 M/sec                       (95.79%)
> +           9019581      L1-dcache-load-misses:u          #    3.20% of all L1-dcache accesses   (95.79%)
> +   <not supported>      LLC-loads:u
> +   <not supported>      LLC-load-misses:u
> +
> +      11.180830431 seconds time elapsed
> +
> +       1.502318000 seconds user
> +       6.377221000 seconds sys
> +
> +The availability of events and metrics depends on the system you are running.
> +
> +`Full documentation <https://perf.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page>`__
> +
> +**Perfetto**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +.. _error_checking:
> +
> +KASAN, UBSAN, lockdep and other error checkers
> +----------------------------------------------
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +.. _kernel_panic_analysis_tools:
> +
> +Kernel panic analysis tools
> +---------------------------

I think this section is worthwhile to make more prominent as well.

> +
> +  To analyse the crash dump please use `Kdump` & `Kexec`.
> +
> +  TBD
> +
> +  `Full documentation <../../admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst>`__
> +
> +  In order to find the corresponding line in the code you can use `faddr2line
> +  <https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/scripts/faddr2line>`__, note
> +  that you need to enable `CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO` for that to work.
> +
> +  An alternative to using `faddr2line` is the use of `objdump` (and it's
> +  derivatives for the different platforms like `aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump`),
> +  take this line as an example:
> +
> +  `[  +0.000240]  rkvdec_device_run+0x50/0x138 [rockchip_vdec]`.
> +
> +  We can find the corresponding line of code by executing:
> +  ::
> +
> +    aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump -dS drivers/staging/media/rkvdec/rockchip-vdec.ko | grep rkvdec_device_run\>: -A 40
> +    0000000000000ac8 <rkvdec_device_run>:
> +     ac8:	d503201f 	nop
> +     acc:	d503201f 	nop
> +    {
> +     ad0:	d503233f 	paciasp
> +     ad4:	a9bd7bfd 	stp	x29, x30, [sp, #-48]!
> +     ad8:	910003fd 	mov	x29, sp
> +     adc:	a90153f3 	stp	x19, x20, [sp, #16]
> +     ae0:	a9025bf5 	stp	x21, x22, [sp, #32]
> +        const struct rkvdec_coded_fmt_desc *desc = ctx->coded_fmt_desc;
> +     ae4:	f9411814 	ldr	x20, [x0, #560]
> +        struct rkvdec_dev *rkvdec = ctx->dev;
> +     ae8:	f9418015 	ldr	x21, [x0, #768]
> +        if (WARN_ON(!desc))
> +     aec:	b4000654 	cbz	x20, bb4 <rkvdec_device_run+0xec>
> +        ret = pm_runtime_resume_and_get(rkvdec->dev);
> +     af0:	f943d2b6 	ldr	x22, [x21, #1952]
> +        ret = __pm_runtime_resume(dev, RPM_GET_PUT);
> +     af4:	aa0003f3 	mov	x19, x0
> +     af8:	52800081 	mov	w1, #0x4                   	// #4
> +     afc:	aa1603e0 	mov	x0, x22
> +     b00:	94000000 	bl	0 <__pm_runtime_resume>
> +        if (ret < 0) {
> +     b04:	37f80340 	tbnz	w0, #31, b6c <rkvdec_device_run+0xa4>
> +        dev_warn(rkvdec->dev, "Not good\n");
> +     b08:	f943d2a0 	ldr	x0, [x21, #1952]
> +     b0c:	90000001 	adrp	x1, 0 <rkvdec_try_ctrl-0x8>
> +     b10:	91000021 	add	x1, x1, #0x0
> +     b14:	94000000 	bl	0 <_dev_warn>
> +        *bad = 1;
> +     b18:	d2800001 	mov	x1, #0x0                   	// #0
> +     ...
> +
> +
> +  To find the matching line we just have to add `0x50` (from
> +  `rkvdec_device_run+0x50`) to `0xac8` (from `0000000000000ac8
> +  <rkvdec_device_run>:`), which yields `0xb18` corresponding with `*bad = 1`.
> +
> +**Copyright** |copy| 2024 : Collabora
> diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..0008966c0862
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +============
> +Media Guides
> +============
> +
> +.. toctree::
> +    :caption: Table of Contents
> +    :maxdepth: 1
> +
> +    debugging_issues
> diff --git a/Documentation/media/index.rst b/Documentation/media/index.rst
> index d056a9e99dca..5461876fc401 100644
> --- a/Documentation/media/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/media/index.rst
> @@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ Media Subsystem Documentation
>  .. toctree::
>     :maxdepth: 2
>  
> +   guides/index
>     ../userspace-api/media/index
>     ../driver-api/media/index.rst
>     ../admin-guide/media/index
> 

Regards,

	Hans
  
Adrian Larumbe June 28, 2024, 7:08 p.m. UTC | #2
Hi Sebastian,

On 29.05.2024 18:22, Sebastian Fricke wrote:
> Create a guides section for all documentation material, that isn't
> strictly related to a specific piece of code.
> 
> Provide a guide for developers on how to debug code with a focus on the
> media subsystem. This document aims to provide a rough overview over the
> possibilities and a rational to help choosing the right tool for the
> given circumstances.

Just like you, I'm not an English native speaker myself, so sometimes I make
style mistakes that only seem obvious to someone whose native tongue is English.

What I do in the case of documentation patches is running the whole thing
through languagetool (https://www.languagetool.org). It's LGPL and I suppose
some vim versions might have a plugin that lets you interface with it from
within the buffer you're editing. On my side, when running it on the previous
paragraph, it showed the following warning:

[ADVISE_VBG[3] premium: false] The verb ‘help’ is used with an infinitive. -> (to choose, choose)

> Signed-off-by: Sebastian Fricke <sebastian.fricke@collabora.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst | 477 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  Documentation/media/guides/index.rst            |  11 +
>  Documentation/media/index.rst                   |   1 +
>  3 files changed, 489 insertions(+)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..8fee749e7e6a
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,477 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0

I've noticed you've included the licence header in all your files. I also
noticed though that Documentation/gpu/index.rst doesn't have it. I suppose it
might've become a requiremente after that file was first submitted, but I'm not
sure so I guess it's best to ask you directly.

> +.. include:: <isonum.txt>
> +
> +===================================================
> +Debugging and tracing in the media subsystem
> +===================================================
> +
> +This document serves as a starting point and lookup for debugging device
> +drivers in the media subsystem.
> +
> +.. contents::
> +    :depth: 3
> +
> +General debugging advice
> +========================
> +
> +Depending on the issue, a different set of tools is available to track down the
> +problem or even to realize whether there is one in the first place.
> +
> +As a first step you have to figure out what kind of issue you want to debug.
> +Depending on the answer, your methodology and choice of tools may vary.
> +Some typical issues are listed below. The list is not exhaustive.

I've noticed a lot of the information in this guide isn't specific to the Media
subsystem. Isn't there a chance that you might be reduplicating this
information? I guess a lot of it could fit into some sort of 'general driver
debugging techniques' file, although I'm not sure where that would fit into the
documentation hierarchy.

> +What is the issue?
> +------------------
> +1. Driver doesn't behave as expected
> +
> +   TBD
> +
> +2. Running out of memory
> +
> +  In this case you should use `Linux CLI tools <linux-tools_>`_ first to verify
> +  whether the issue stems from the Kernel or from userspace.
> +
> +  TBD
> +
> +3. Kernel panic
> +
> +  The kernel provides a number of `tools <kernel_panic_analysis_tools_>`_ to
> +  analyse a Kernel panic, use these first, once you have identified where the
> +  error occurs you can further analyse the issue by adding `debug logs <Printk
> +  & friends_>`_ to the codebase.
> +
> +4. Device doesn't probe
> +
> +   TBD
> +
> +5. Driver too slow
> +
> +  You should start with a `performance analysis <performance>`__, to pin down the problem area.
> +
> +Is timing a factor?
> +-------------------
> +
> +It is important to understand if the problem you want to debug manifests itself
> +consistently (i.e. given a set of inputs you always get the same, incorrect
> +output), or inconsistently. If it manifests itself inconsistently, some timing
> +factor might be at play. If inserting delays into the code does change the
> +behavior, then quite likely timing is a factor.
> +
> +   In this case using a simple `printk`_ won't work, a similar alternative is
> +   too use `trace_printk`_, which logs the debug messages to the trace file
> +   instead of the kernel log.
> +
> +Do I have root access to the system?
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +Are you easily able to replace the module in question or to install a new kernel?
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +.. _live_debug:
> +
> +Do I need to debug on a live system?
> +------------------------------------
> +
> +When the kernel is compiled with `Ftrace`_, this tool might be a good start, as you can trace specific functions to dial down to the sequence of actions that causes the misbehavior.
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +Is the outcome flaky?
> +---------------------
> +
> +We will call the outcome "flaky" if multiple iterations of the same routine with the same parameters result in different outcomes.
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +Available tools
> +===============
> +
> +Printk & friends
> +----------------
> +
> +These are derivatives of printf() with varying destination and support for being dynamically turned on or off, or lack thereof.
> +
> +.. _printk:
> +
> +**Simple printk**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The classic, this can be used to great effect for quick and dirty development
> +of new modules or to extract arbitrary necessary data for troubleshooting.
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_PRINTK` (usually enabled by default)
> +
> +**Pros**:
> +
> +- No need to learn anything, simple to use
> +- Easy to modify exactly to your needs (formatting of the data (See: `format specifiers <../../core-api/printk-formats.html#printk-specifiers>`__), visibility in the log)
> +- Can cause delays in the execution of the code (beneficial to confirm whether timing is a factor)
> +
> +**Cons**:
> +
> +- Requires rebuilding the kernel/module, (See: `live_debug`_)
> +- Can cause delays in the execution of the code
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../core-api/printk-basics.rst>`__
> +
> +.. _trace_printk:
> +
> +**Trace_printk**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE` & `#include <linux/ftrace.h>`
> +
> +A tiny bit less comfortable to use than `printk`_, because you will have to
> +read the messages from the trace file (See: `Reading the ftrace log`_ instead
> +of from the kernel log, but very useful when printk adds unwanted delays into
> +the code execution, causing issues to be flaky or hidden.)
> +
> +If the processing of this still causes timing issues then you can try `trace_puts()`.
> +
> +`Full Documentation <../../driver-api/basics.html#c.trace_printk>`__
> +
> +**dev_dbg / v4l2_dbg**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +- Difference between both?
> +
> +  - v4l2_dbg utilizes v4l2_printk under the hood, which further uses printk directly, thus it cannot be targeted by dynamic debug
> +  - dev_dbg can be targeted by dynamic debug
> +  - v4l2_dbg has a more specific prefix format for the media subsystem, while dev_dbg only highlights the driver name and the location of the log
> +
> +**The dev_debug module parameter**
> +
> +Every video device provides a `dev_debug` parameter, which allows to get further insights into the IOCTLs in the background.
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../driver-api/media/v4l2-dev.html#video-device-debugging>`__
> +
> +**When is it appropriate to leave a debug print in the code?**
> +
> +Permanent debug statements have to be useful for a developer to troubleshoot
> +why the driver misbehaves. Judging that is a bit more of an art than a
> +science, but some guidelines are in the `Coding style guide
> +<../../process/coding-style.html#printing-kernel-messages>`__)
> +
> +**Custom printk**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +Example:
> +::
> +
> +  #define core_dbg(fmt, arg...) do { \
> +	  if (core_debug) \
> +		  printk(KERN_DEBUG pr_fmt("core: " fmt), ## arg); \
> +	  } while (0)
> +
> +**When should you do this?**
> +
> +It is better to just use a `pr_debug()`, which can later be turned on/off with
> +dynamic debug. Additionally, a lot of drivers activate these prints via a
> +variable like `core_debug` set by a module parameter. However, Module
> +parameters `are not recommended anymore
> +<https://lkml.org/lkml/2024/3/27/163>`_.
> +
> +Dynamic debug
> +-------------
> +
> +Mechanism to filter what ends up in the kernel log by dis-/en-abling log
> +messages.
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_DEBUG`
> +
> +.. _valid_dyndbg_prints:
> +
> +Dynamic debug is only able to target:
> +
> +- `pr_debug()`
> +- `dev_dbg()`
> +- `print_hex_dump_debug()`
> +- `print_hex_dump_bytes()`
> +
> +Therefore the usability of this tool is quite limited in the media subsystem,
> +because, as of now, there is no uniform rule for adding debug prints to the codebase,
> +resulting in a variety of ways these prints are implemented.
> +
> +Also, note that most debug statements are implemented as a variation of
> +`dprintk`, which have to be activated via a parameter in respective module,
> +dynamic debug is unable to do that step for you.
> +
> +Here is one example, that enables all available `pr_debug()`'s within the file:
> +::
> +
> +  $ alias ddcmd='echo $* > /proc/dynamic_debug/control'
> +  $ ddcmd '-p; file v4l2-h264.c +p'
> +  $ grep =p /proc/dynamic_debug/control
> +   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:372 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_b =p "ref_pic_list_b%u (cur_poc %u%c) %s"
> +   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:333 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_p =p "ref_pic_list_p (cur_poc %u%c) %s\n"
> +
> +**When should you use this over** `Ftrace`_ **?**
> +
> +- When the code contains one of the :ref:`valid print statements <valid_dyndbg_prints_>`_ or when you have added multiple pr_debug() statements during development
> +- When timing is not an issue, meaning if multiple `pr_debug()` statements in the code won't cause delays
> +- When you care more about receiving specific log messages than tracing the pattern of how a function is called
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../admin-guide/dynamic-debug-howto.rst>`__
> +
> +Ftrace
> +------
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE`
> +
> +Trace whenever the `rkvdec_try_ctrl` function is called
> +::
> +
> +  $ cd /sys/kernel/tracing
> +  $ echo function > /sys/kernel/tracing/current_tracer
> +  $ echo rkvdec_try_ctrl > set_ftrace_filter
> +  $ echo 1 > tracing_on
> +  $ cat trace
> +   h264parse0:sink-6359    [001] ...1. 172714.547523: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +   h264parse0:sink-6359    [005] ...1. 172714.567386: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +
> +Find out from where the calls originate
> +::
> +
> +  $ echo 1 > options/func_stack_trace
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967762: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967773: <stack trace>
> +   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
> +   => try_or_set_cluster
> +   => try_set_ext_ctrls_common
> +   => try_set_ext_ctrls
> +   => v4l2_s_ext_ctrls
> +   => v4l_s_ext_ctrls
> +   ...
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985747: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985750: <stack trace>
> +   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
> +   => try_or_set_cluster
> +   => v4l2_ctrl_request_setup
> +   => rkvdec_run_preamble
> +   => rkvdec_h264_run
> +   => rkvdec_device_run
> +   ...
> +
> +Trace the children of a function call and show the return values (requires config `FUNCTION_GRAPH_RETVAL`)
> +::
> +
> +  echo function_graph > current_tracer
> +  echo rkvdec_h264_run > set_graph_function
> +  echo 4 > max_graph_depth
> +  echo do_interrupt_handler mutex_* > set_graph_notrace
> +  echo 1 > options/funcgraph-retval
> +   ...
> +   4)               |  rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec]() {
> +   4)               |    v4l2_ctrl_find [videodev]() {
> +   ...
> +   4)               |    rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
> +   4)   4.666 us    |      v4l2_m2m_next_buf [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0xffff000005782000 */
> +   ...
> +   4)               |      v4l2_ctrl_request_setup [videodev]() {
> +   4)   4.667 us    |        media_request_object_find [mc](); /* = 0xffff000005e3aa98 */
> +   4)   1.750 us    |        find_ref [videodev](); /* = 0xffff00000833b2a0 */
> +   ...
> +   4)   1.750 us    |      v4l2_m2m_buf_copy_metadata [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0x0 */
> +   4) ! 114.333 us  |    } /* rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
> +   4)   2.334 us    |    v4l2_h264_init_reflist_builder [v4l2_h264](); /* = 0x3e */
> +   ...
> +   4)               |    v4l2_h264_build_b_ref_lists [v4l2_h264]() {
> +   ...
> +   4)               |    rkvdec_run_postamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
> +   ...
> +   4) ! 444.208 us  |  } /* rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
> +
> +**Reading the ftrace log**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The `trace` file can be read just like any other file (`cat`, `tail`, `head`,
> +`vim`, etc.), the size of the file is limited by the `buffer_size_kb` (``echo
> +1000 > buffer_size_kb``). The `trace_pipe` will behave similar to the `trace`
> +file, but whenever you read from the file the content is consumed.
> +
> +**Kernelshark**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +`Kernelshark documentation <https://kernelshark.org/Documentation.html>`_
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../trace/ftrace.rst>`__
> +
> +DebugFS
> +-------
> +
> +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DEBUG_FS` & `#include <linux/debugfs.h>`
> +
> +DebugFS differs from the other approaches of debugging, as it doesn't write messages to the kernel log nor add traces to the code. Instead it allows the developer to handle a set of files.
> +With these files you can either store values of variables or make register/memory dumps or you can make these files writable and modify values/settings in the driver.
> +Possible use-cases among others:
> +
> +- Store register values
> +- Keep track of variables
> +- Store errors
> +- Store settings
> +- Toggle a setting like debug on/off
> +- Error injection
> +
> +This is especially useful, when the size of a data dump would be hard to digest as
> +part of the general kernel log (for example when dumping raw bitstream data) or
> +when you are not interested in all the values all the time, but with the
> +possibility to inspect them.
> +
> +The general idea is:
> +
> +- Create a directory during probe (`struct dentry *parent = debugfs_create_dir("my_driver", NULL);`)
> +- Create a file (`debugfs_create_u32("my_value", 444, parent, &my_variable);`)
> +
> +  - In this example the file is found in `/sys/kernel/debug/my_driver/my_value` (with read permissions for user/group/all)
> +  - any update of `my_variable` will update the value in the file
> +
> +- Clean up the folder when removing the device (`debugfs_remove_recursive(parent);`)
> +
> +`Full documentation <../../filesystems/debugfs.rst>`__
> +
> +Perf & alternatives
> +-------------------
> +
> +The tools mentioned above provide ways to inspect kernel code, results, variable values, etc.
> +Sometimes you have to find out first where to look and for those cases a box of performance tracking tools can help you to frame the issue.
> +
> +.. _performance:
> +
> +**Why should you do a performance analysis?**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +A performance analysis is a good first step when among other reasons:
> +
> +- you cannot define the issue
> +- you do not know where it occurs
> +- the running system should not be interrupted or it is a remote system, where you cannot install a new module/kernel
> +
> +.. _linux-tools:
> +
> +**How to do a simple analysis with linux tools?**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +For the start of a performance analysis, you can start with the usual tools like:
> +
> +- `top` / `htop` / `atop` (*get an overview of the system load, see spikes on specific processes*)
> +- `mpstat -P ALL` (*look at the load distribution among CPUs*)
> +- `iostat -x` (*observe input and output devices utilization and performance*)
> +- `vmstat` (*overview of memory usage on the system*)
> +- `pidstat` (*similar to* `vmstat` *but per process, to dial it down to the target*)
> +- `strace -tp $PID` (*once you know the process, you can figure out how it communicates with the Kernel*)
> +
> +These should help to figure out restrict the areas to look at sufficiently.
> +
> +**Diving deeper with perf**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +The **perf** tool provides a series of metrics and events to further dial down on issues.
> +
> +Prerequisite: TBD
> +
> +Gather statistics data for a decoding job: (This example is on a RK3399 SoC with the rkvdec codec driver using the `fluster test suite <https://github.com/fluendo/fluster>`__)
> +::
> +
> +  perf stat -d python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1
> +  ...
> +  Performance counter stats for 'python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1 -v':
> +
> +           7794.23 msec task-clock:u                     #    0.697 CPUs utilized
> +                 0      context-switches:u               #    0.000 /sec
> +                 0      cpu-migrations:u                 #    0.000 /sec
> +             11901      page-faults:u                    #    1.527 K/sec
> +         882671556      cycles:u                         #    0.113 GHz                         (95.79%)
> +         711708695      instructions:u                   #    0.81  insn per cycle              (95.79%)
> +          10581935      branches:u                       #    1.358 M/sec                       (15.13%)
> +           6871144      branch-misses:u                  #   64.93% of all branches             (95.79%)
> +         281716547      L1-dcache-loads:u                #   36.144 M/sec                       (95.79%)
> +           9019581      L1-dcache-load-misses:u          #    3.20% of all L1-dcache accesses   (95.79%)
> +   <not supported>      LLC-loads:u
> +   <not supported>      LLC-load-misses:u
> +
> +      11.180830431 seconds time elapsed
> +
> +       1.502318000 seconds user
> +       6.377221000 seconds sys
> +
> +The availability of events and metrics depends on the system you are running.
> +
> +`Full documentation <https://perf.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page>`__
> +
> +**Perfetto**
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +.. _error_checking:
> +
> +KASAN, UBSAN, lockdep and other error checkers
> +----------------------------------------------
> +
> +TBD
> +
> +.. _kernel_panic_analysis_tools:
> +
> +Kernel panic analysis tools
> +---------------------------
> +
> +  To analyse the crash dump please use `Kdump` & `Kexec`.
> +
> +  TBD
> +
> +  `Full documentation <../../admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst>`__
> +
> +  In order to find the corresponding line in the code you can use `faddr2line
> +  <https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/scripts/faddr2line>`__, note
> +  that you need to enable `CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO` for that to work.
> +
> +  An alternative to using `faddr2line` is the use of `objdump` (and it's
> +  derivatives for the different platforms like `aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump`),
> +  take this line as an example:
> +
> +  `[  +0.000240]  rkvdec_device_run+0x50/0x138 [rockchip_vdec]`.
> +
> +  We can find the corresponding line of code by executing:
> +  ::
> +
> +    aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump -dS drivers/staging/media/rkvdec/rockchip-vdec.ko | grep rkvdec_device_run\>: -A 40
> +    0000000000000ac8 <rkvdec_device_run>:
> +     ac8:	d503201f 	nop
> +     acc:	d503201f 	nop
> +    {
> +     ad0:	d503233f 	paciasp
> +     ad4:	a9bd7bfd 	stp	x29, x30, [sp, #-48]!
> +     ad8:	910003fd 	mov	x29, sp
> +     adc:	a90153f3 	stp	x19, x20, [sp, #16]
> +     ae0:	a9025bf5 	stp	x21, x22, [sp, #32]
> +        const struct rkvdec_coded_fmt_desc *desc = ctx->coded_fmt_desc;
> +     ae4:	f9411814 	ldr	x20, [x0, #560]
> +        struct rkvdec_dev *rkvdec = ctx->dev;
> +     ae8:	f9418015 	ldr	x21, [x0, #768]
> +        if (WARN_ON(!desc))
> +     aec:	b4000654 	cbz	x20, bb4 <rkvdec_device_run+0xec>
> +        ret = pm_runtime_resume_and_get(rkvdec->dev);
> +     af0:	f943d2b6 	ldr	x22, [x21, #1952]
> +        ret = __pm_runtime_resume(dev, RPM_GET_PUT);
> +     af4:	aa0003f3 	mov	x19, x0
> +     af8:	52800081 	mov	w1, #0x4                   	// #4
> +     afc:	aa1603e0 	mov	x0, x22
> +     b00:	94000000 	bl	0 <__pm_runtime_resume>
> +        if (ret < 0) {
> +     b04:	37f80340 	tbnz	w0, #31, b6c <rkvdec_device_run+0xa4>
> +        dev_warn(rkvdec->dev, "Not good\n");
> +     b08:	f943d2a0 	ldr	x0, [x21, #1952]
> +     b0c:	90000001 	adrp	x1, 0 <rkvdec_try_ctrl-0x8>
> +     b10:	91000021 	add	x1, x1, #0x0
> +     b14:	94000000 	bl	0 <_dev_warn>
> +        *bad = 1;
> +     b18:	d2800001 	mov	x1, #0x0                   	// #0
> +     ...
> +
> +
> +  To find the matching line we just have to add `0x50` (from
> +  `rkvdec_device_run+0x50`) to `0xac8` (from `0000000000000ac8
> +  <rkvdec_device_run>:`), which yields `0xb18` corresponding with `*bad = 1`.
> +
> +**Copyright** |copy| 2024 : Collabora
> diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..0008966c0862
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +============
> +Media Guides
> +============
> +
> +.. toctree::
> +    :caption: Table of Contents
> +    :maxdepth: 1
> +
> +    debugging_issues
> diff --git a/Documentation/media/index.rst b/Documentation/media/index.rst
> index d056a9e99dca..5461876fc401 100644
> --- a/Documentation/media/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/media/index.rst
> @@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ Media Subsystem Documentation
>  .. toctree::
>     :maxdepth: 2
>  
> +   guides/index
>     ../userspace-api/media/index
>     ../driver-api/media/index.rst
>     ../admin-guide/media/index
> 
> -- 
> 2.25.1

Adrian Larumbe
  
Randy Dunlap June 28, 2024, 7:34 p.m. UTC | #3
Hi,

On 6/28/24 12:08 PM, Adrian Larumbe wrote:
> On 29.05.2024 18:22, Sebastian Fricke wrote:
>> Create a guides section for all documentation material, that isn't
>> strictly related to a specific piece of code.
>>
>> Provide a guide for developers on how to debug code with a focus on the
>> media subsystem. This document aims to provide a rough overview over the
>> possibilities and a rational to help choosing the right tool for the
>> given circumstances.
> Just like you, I'm not an English native speaker myself, so sometimes I make
> style mistakes that only seem obvious to someone whose native tongue is English.
> 
> What I do in the case of documentation patches is running the whole thing
> through languagetool (https://www.languagetool.org). It's LGPL and I suppose
> some vim versions might have a plugin that lets you interface with it from
> within the buffer you're editing. On my side, when running it on the previous
> paragraph, it showed the following warning:
> 
> [ADVISE_VBG[3] premium: false] The verb ‘help’ is used with an infinitive. -> (to choose, choose)

Ack that one. Also in that same sentence, s/rational/rationale/.
  
Laurent Pinchart June 28, 2024, 10:15 p.m. UTC | #4
On Mon, Jun 24, 2024 at 01:23:10PM +0200, Hans Verkuil wrote:
> Hi Sebastian,
> 
> This is a good idea, but it needs more work.
> 
> The main change is that it needs to be split into two parts: debugging
> driver issues while developing the driver, and debugging userspace issues
> where you want to figure out why (typically) an ioctl fails.

I agree. For the userspace issues, I wonder where the right place to
document debugging tips is. Centralizing them in a single location has
upsides, but there are also upsides in splitting that information and
storing it alongside the relevant guides. For instance, I wrote some
time ago a detailed guide on how to configure media pipelines (see
https://git.ideasonboard.org/doc/mc-v4l2.git/tree/). Getting a -EPIPE
error when starting the pipeline is one of the most commonly encountered
issue (https://git.ideasonboard.org/doc/mc-v4l2.git/tree/configuring-pipelines.rst#n237),
and the guide explains how to solve by walking the user through pipeline
configuration theory, as well as pointing to the relevant debugging
tools.

> On 29/05/2024 18:22, Sebastian Fricke wrote:
> > Create a guides section for all documentation material, that isn't
> > strictly related to a specific piece of code.
> > 
> > Provide a guide for developers on how to debug code with a focus on the
> > media subsystem. This document aims to provide a rough overview over the
> > possibilities and a rational to help choosing the right tool for the
> > given circumstances.
> > 
> > Signed-off-by: Sebastian Fricke <sebastian.fricke@collabora.com>
> > ---
> >  Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst | 477 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
> >  Documentation/media/guides/index.rst            |  11 +
> >  Documentation/media/index.rst                   |   1 +
> >  3 files changed, 489 insertions(+)
> > 
> > diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..8fee749e7e6a
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
> > @@ -0,0 +1,477 @@
> > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > +.. include:: <isonum.txt>
> > +
> > +===================================================
> > +Debugging and tracing in the media subsystem
> > +===================================================
> > +
> > +This document serves as a starting point and lookup for debugging device
> > +drivers in the media subsystem.
> > +
> > +.. contents::
> > +    :depth: 3
> > +
> > +General debugging advice
> > +========================
> > +
> > +Depending on the issue, a different set of tools is available to track down the
> > +problem or even to realize whether there is one in the first place.
> > +
> > +As a first step you have to figure out what kind of issue you want to debug.
> > +Depending on the answer, your methodology and choice of tools may vary.
> > +Some typical issues are listed below. The list is not exhaustive.
> > +
> > +What is the issue?
> > +------------------
> > +1. Driver doesn't behave as expected
> > +
> > +   TBD
> > +
> > +2. Running out of memory
> > +
> > +  In this case you should use `Linux CLI tools <linux-tools_>`_ first to verify
> > +  whether the issue stems from the Kernel or from userspace.
> > +
> > +  TBD
> > +
> > +3. Kernel panic
> > +
> > +  The kernel provides a number of `tools <kernel_panic_analysis_tools_>`_ to
> > +  analyse a Kernel panic, use these first, once you have identified where the
> > +  error occurs you can further analyse the issue by adding `debug logs <Printk
> > +  & friends_>`_ to the codebase.
> > +
> > +4. Device doesn't probe
> > +
> > +   TBD
> > +
> > +5. Driver too slow
> > +
> > +  You should start with a `performance analysis <performance>`__, to pin down the problem area.
> 
> I'm not sure how useful this section is. Too vague, really.
> 
> > +
> > +Is timing a factor?
> > +-------------------
> > +
> > +It is important to understand if the problem you want to debug manifests itself
> > +consistently (i.e. given a set of inputs you always get the same, incorrect
> > +output), or inconsistently. If it manifests itself inconsistently, some timing
> > +factor might be at play. If inserting delays into the code does change the
> > +behavior, then quite likely timing is a factor.
> > +
> > +   In this case using a simple `printk`_ won't work, a similar alternative is
> > +   too use `trace_printk`_, which logs the debug messages to the trace file
> 
> too -> to
> 
> > +   instead of the kernel log.
> > +
> > +Do I have root access to the system?
> > +------------------------------------
> > +
> > +Are you easily able to replace the module in question or to install a new kernel?
> > +
> > +TBD
> > +
> > +.. _live_debug:
> > +
> > +Do I need to debug on a live system?
> > +------------------------------------
> > +
> > +When the kernel is compiled with `Ftrace`_, this tool might be a good start, as you can trace specific functions to dial down to the sequence of actions that causes the misbehavior.
> > +
> > +TBD
> > +
> > +Is the outcome flaky?
> > +---------------------
> > +
> > +We will call the outcome "flaky" if multiple iterations of the same routine with the same parameters result in different outcomes.
> > +
> > +TBD
> > +
> > +Available tools
> > +===============
> > +
> > +Printk & friends
> > +----------------
> > +
> > +These are derivatives of printf() with varying destination and support for being dynamically turned on or off, or lack thereof.
> > +
> > +.. _printk:
> > +
> > +**Simple printk**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +The classic, this can be used to great effect for quick and dirty development
> > +of new modules or to extract arbitrary necessary data for troubleshooting.
> > +
> > +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_PRINTK` (usually enabled by default)
> > +
> > +**Pros**:
> > +
> > +- No need to learn anything, simple to use
> > +- Easy to modify exactly to your needs (formatting of the data (See: `format specifiers <../../core-api/printk-formats.html#printk-specifiers>`__), visibility in the log)
> > +- Can cause delays in the execution of the code (beneficial to confirm whether timing is a factor)
> > +
> > +**Cons**:
> > +
> > +- Requires rebuilding the kernel/module, (See: `live_debug`_)
> > +- Can cause delays in the execution of the code
> > +
> > +`Full documentation <../../core-api/printk-basics.rst>`__
> > +
> > +.. _trace_printk:
> > +
> > +**Trace_printk**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE` & `#include <linux/ftrace.h>`
> > +
> > +A tiny bit less comfortable to use than `printk`_, because you will have to
> > +read the messages from the trace file (See: `Reading the ftrace log`_ instead
> > +of from the kernel log, but very useful when printk adds unwanted delays into
> > +the code execution, causing issues to be flaky or hidden.)
> > +
> > +If the processing of this still causes timing issues then you can try `trace_puts()`.
> > +
> > +`Full Documentation <../../driver-api/basics.html#c.trace_printk>`__
> > +
> > +**dev_dbg / v4l2_dbg**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +- Difference between both?
> > +
> > +  - v4l2_dbg utilizes v4l2_printk under the hood, which further uses printk directly, thus it cannot be targeted by dynamic debug
> > +  - dev_dbg can be targeted by dynamic debug
> > +  - v4l2_dbg has a more specific prefix format for the media subsystem, while dev_dbg only highlights the driver name and the location of the log
> > +
> > +**The dev_debug module parameter**
> 
> This needs to be more prominent: it is very useful, esp. when debugging userspace problems.
> 
> It is also always available, and all you need is root access in order to write to dev_debug.
> 
> This is also mixed in with the various printk sections, but this should be a separate
> section.
> 
> > +
> > +Every video device provides a `dev_debug` parameter, which allows to get further insights into the IOCTLs in the background.
> > +
> > +`Full documentation <../../driver-api/media/v4l2-dev.html#video-device-debugging>`__
> > +
> > +**When is it appropriate to leave a debug print in the code?**
> > +
> > +Permanent debug statements have to be useful for a developer to troubleshoot
> > +why the driver misbehaves. Judging that is a bit more of an art than a
> > +science, but some guidelines are in the `Coding style guide
> > +<../../process/coding-style.html#printing-kernel-messages>`__)
> > +
> > +**Custom printk**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +Example:
> > +::
> > +
> > +  #define core_dbg(fmt, arg...) do { \
> > +	  if (core_debug) \
> > +		  printk(KERN_DEBUG pr_fmt("core: " fmt), ## arg); \
> > +	  } while (0)
> > +
> > +**When should you do this?**
> > +
> > +It is better to just use a `pr_debug()`, which can later be turned on/off with
> > +dynamic debug. Additionally, a lot of drivers activate these prints via a
> > +variable like `core_debug` set by a module parameter. However, Module
> > +parameters `are not recommended anymore
> > +<https://lkml.org/lkml/2024/3/27/163>`_.
> > +
> > +Dynamic debug
> > +-------------
> > +
> > +Mechanism to filter what ends up in the kernel log by dis-/en-abling log
> > +messages.
> > +
> > +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_DEBUG`
> > +
> > +.. _valid_dyndbg_prints:
> > +
> > +Dynamic debug is only able to target:
> > +
> > +- `pr_debug()`
> > +- `dev_dbg()`
> > +- `print_hex_dump_debug()`
> > +- `print_hex_dump_bytes()`
> > +
> > +Therefore the usability of this tool is quite limited in the media subsystem,
> > +because, as of now, there is no uniform rule for adding debug prints to the codebase,
> > +resulting in a variety of ways these prints are implemented.
> > +
> > +Also, note that most debug statements are implemented as a variation of
> > +`dprintk`, which have to be activated via a parameter in respective module,
> > +dynamic debug is unable to do that step for you.
> > +
> > +Here is one example, that enables all available `pr_debug()`'s within the file:
> > +::
> > +
> > +  $ alias ddcmd='echo $* > /proc/dynamic_debug/control'
> > +  $ ddcmd '-p; file v4l2-h264.c +p'
> > +  $ grep =p /proc/dynamic_debug/control
> > +   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:372 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_b =p "ref_pic_list_b%u (cur_poc %u%c) %s"
> > +   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:333 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_p =p "ref_pic_list_p (cur_poc %u%c) %s\n"
> > +
> > +**When should you use this over** `Ftrace`_ **?**
> > +
> > +- When the code contains one of the :ref:`valid print statements <valid_dyndbg_prints_>`_ or when you have added multiple pr_debug() statements during development
> > +- When timing is not an issue, meaning if multiple `pr_debug()` statements in the code won't cause delays
> > +- When you care more about receiving specific log messages than tracing the pattern of how a function is called
> > +
> > +`Full documentation <../../admin-guide/dynamic-debug-howto.rst>`__
> 
> printk and friends is definitely for driver devs as you need to be able to recompile the kernel.
> 
> > +
> > +Ftrace
> > +------
> > +
> > +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE`
> > +
> > +Trace whenever the `rkvdec_try_ctrl` function is called
> > +::
> > +
> > +  $ cd /sys/kernel/tracing
> > +  $ echo function > /sys/kernel/tracing/current_tracer
> > +  $ echo rkvdec_try_ctrl > set_ftrace_filter
> > +  $ echo 1 > tracing_on
> > +  $ cat trace
> > +   h264parse0:sink-6359    [001] ...1. 172714.547523: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> > +   h264parse0:sink-6359    [005] ...1. 172714.567386: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> > +
> > +Find out from where the calls originate
> > +::
> > +
> > +  $ echo 1 > options/func_stack_trace
> > +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967762: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> > +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967773: <stack trace>
> > +   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
> > +   => try_or_set_cluster
> > +   => try_set_ext_ctrls_common
> > +   => try_set_ext_ctrls
> > +   => v4l2_s_ext_ctrls
> > +   => v4l_s_ext_ctrls
> > +   ...
> > +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985747: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
> > +   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985750: <stack trace>
> > +   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
> > +   => try_or_set_cluster
> > +   => v4l2_ctrl_request_setup
> > +   => rkvdec_run_preamble
> > +   => rkvdec_h264_run
> > +   => rkvdec_device_run
> > +   ...
> > +
> > +Trace the children of a function call and show the return values (requires config `FUNCTION_GRAPH_RETVAL`)
> > +::
> > +
> > +  echo function_graph > current_tracer
> > +  echo rkvdec_h264_run > set_graph_function
> > +  echo 4 > max_graph_depth
> > +  echo do_interrupt_handler mutex_* > set_graph_notrace
> > +  echo 1 > options/funcgraph-retval
> > +   ...
> > +   4)               |  rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec]() {
> > +   4)               |    v4l2_ctrl_find [videodev]() {
> > +   ...
> > +   4)               |    rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
> > +   4)   4.666 us    |      v4l2_m2m_next_buf [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0xffff000005782000 */
> > +   ...
> > +   4)               |      v4l2_ctrl_request_setup [videodev]() {
> > +   4)   4.667 us    |        media_request_object_find [mc](); /* = 0xffff000005e3aa98 */
> > +   4)   1.750 us    |        find_ref [videodev](); /* = 0xffff00000833b2a0 */
> > +   ...
> > +   4)   1.750 us    |      v4l2_m2m_buf_copy_metadata [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0x0 */
> > +   4) ! 114.333 us  |    } /* rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
> > +   4)   2.334 us    |    v4l2_h264_init_reflist_builder [v4l2_h264](); /* = 0x3e */
> > +   ...
> > +   4)               |    v4l2_h264_build_b_ref_lists [v4l2_h264]() {
> > +   ...
> > +   4)               |    rkvdec_run_postamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
> > +   ...
> > +   4) ! 444.208 us  |  } /* rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
> > +
> > +**Reading the ftrace log**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +The `trace` file can be read just like any other file (`cat`, `tail`, `head`,
> > +`vim`, etc.), the size of the file is limited by the `buffer_size_kb` (``echo
> > +1000 > buffer_size_kb``). The `trace_pipe` will behave similar to the `trace`
> > +file, but whenever you read from the file the content is consumed.
> > +
> > +**Kernelshark**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +`Kernelshark documentation <https://kernelshark.org/Documentation.html>`_
> > +
> > +`Full documentation <../../trace/ftrace.rst>`__
> > +
> > +DebugFS
> > +-------
> > +
> > +Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DEBUG_FS` & `#include <linux/debugfs.h>`
> > +
> > +DebugFS differs from the other approaches of debugging, as it doesn't write messages to the kernel log nor add traces to the code. Instead it allows the developer to handle a set of files.
> > +With these files you can either store values of variables or make register/memory dumps or you can make these files writable and modify values/settings in the driver.
> > +Possible use-cases among others:
> > +
> > +- Store register values
> > +- Keep track of variables
> > +- Store errors
> > +- Store settings
> > +- Toggle a setting like debug on/off
> > +- Error injection
> > +
> > +This is especially useful, when the size of a data dump would be hard to digest as
> > +part of the general kernel log (for example when dumping raw bitstream data) or
> > +when you are not interested in all the values all the time, but with the
> > +possibility to inspect them.
> > +
> > +The general idea is:
> > +
> > +- Create a directory during probe (`struct dentry *parent = debugfs_create_dir("my_driver", NULL);`)
> > +- Create a file (`debugfs_create_u32("my_value", 444, parent, &my_variable);`)
> > +
> > +  - In this example the file is found in `/sys/kernel/debug/my_driver/my_value` (with read permissions for user/group/all)
> > +  - any update of `my_variable` will update the value in the file
> > +
> > +- Clean up the folder when removing the device (`debugfs_remove_recursive(parent);`)
> > +
> > +`Full documentation <../../filesystems/debugfs.rst>`__
> > +
> > +Perf & alternatives
> > +-------------------
> > +
> > +The tools mentioned above provide ways to inspect kernel code, results, variable values, etc.
> > +Sometimes you have to find out first where to look and for those cases a box of performance tracking tools can help you to frame the issue.
> > +
> > +.. _performance:
> > +
> > +**Why should you do a performance analysis?**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +A performance analysis is a good first step when among other reasons:
> > +
> > +- you cannot define the issue
> > +- you do not know where it occurs
> > +- the running system should not be interrupted or it is a remote system, where you cannot install a new module/kernel
> > +
> > +.. _linux-tools:
> > +
> > +**How to do a simple analysis with linux tools?**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +For the start of a performance analysis, you can start with the usual tools like:
> > +
> > +- `top` / `htop` / `atop` (*get an overview of the system load, see spikes on specific processes*)
> > +- `mpstat -P ALL` (*look at the load distribution among CPUs*)
> > +- `iostat -x` (*observe input and output devices utilization and performance*)
> > +- `vmstat` (*overview of memory usage on the system*)
> > +- `pidstat` (*similar to* `vmstat` *but per process, to dial it down to the target*)
> > +- `strace -tp $PID` (*once you know the process, you can figure out how it communicates with the Kernel*)
> > +
> > +These should help to figure out restrict the areas to look at sufficiently.
> > +
> > +**Diving deeper with perf**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +The **perf** tool provides a series of metrics and events to further dial down on issues.
> > +
> > +Prerequisite: TBD
> > +
> > +Gather statistics data for a decoding job: (This example is on a RK3399 SoC with the rkvdec codec driver using the `fluster test suite <https://github.com/fluendo/fluster>`__)
> > +::
> > +
> > +  perf stat -d python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1
> > +  ...
> > +  Performance counter stats for 'python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1 -v':
> > +
> > +           7794.23 msec task-clock:u                     #    0.697 CPUs utilized
> > +                 0      context-switches:u               #    0.000 /sec
> > +                 0      cpu-migrations:u                 #    0.000 /sec
> > +             11901      page-faults:u                    #    1.527 K/sec
> > +         882671556      cycles:u                         #    0.113 GHz                         (95.79%)
> > +         711708695      instructions:u                   #    0.81  insn per cycle              (95.79%)
> > +          10581935      branches:u                       #    1.358 M/sec                       (15.13%)
> > +           6871144      branch-misses:u                  #   64.93% of all branches             (95.79%)
> > +         281716547      L1-dcache-loads:u                #   36.144 M/sec                       (95.79%)
> > +           9019581      L1-dcache-load-misses:u          #    3.20% of all L1-dcache accesses   (95.79%)
> > +   <not supported>      LLC-loads:u
> > +   <not supported>      LLC-load-misses:u
> > +
> > +      11.180830431 seconds time elapsed
> > +
> > +       1.502318000 seconds user
> > +       6.377221000 seconds sys
> > +
> > +The availability of events and metrics depends on the system you are running.
> > +
> > +`Full documentation <https://perf.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page>`__
> > +
> > +**Perfetto**
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +
> > +TBD
> > +
> > +.. _error_checking:
> > +
> > +KASAN, UBSAN, lockdep and other error checkers
> > +----------------------------------------------
> > +
> > +TBD
> > +
> > +.. _kernel_panic_analysis_tools:
> > +
> > +Kernel panic analysis tools
> > +---------------------------
> 
> I think this section is worthwhile to make more prominent as well.

This, as well as quite a few other sections in this document, are not
specific to the media subsystem. Should they be moved to a more generic
document, and maybe referenced from here ?

> > +
> > +  To analyse the crash dump please use `Kdump` & `Kexec`.
> > +
> > +  TBD
> > +
> > +  `Full documentation <../../admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst>`__
> > +
> > +  In order to find the corresponding line in the code you can use `faddr2line
> > +  <https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/scripts/faddr2line>`__, note
> > +  that you need to enable `CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO` for that to work.
> > +
> > +  An alternative to using `faddr2line` is the use of `objdump` (and it's
> > +  derivatives for the different platforms like `aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump`),
> > +  take this line as an example:
> > +
> > +  `[  +0.000240]  rkvdec_device_run+0x50/0x138 [rockchip_vdec]`.
> > +
> > +  We can find the corresponding line of code by executing:
> > +  ::
> > +
> > +    aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump -dS drivers/staging/media/rkvdec/rockchip-vdec.ko | grep rkvdec_device_run\>: -A 40
> > +    0000000000000ac8 <rkvdec_device_run>:
> > +     ac8:	d503201f 	nop
> > +     acc:	d503201f 	nop
> > +    {
> > +     ad0:	d503233f 	paciasp
> > +     ad4:	a9bd7bfd 	stp	x29, x30, [sp, #-48]!
> > +     ad8:	910003fd 	mov	x29, sp
> > +     adc:	a90153f3 	stp	x19, x20, [sp, #16]
> > +     ae0:	a9025bf5 	stp	x21, x22, [sp, #32]
> > +        const struct rkvdec_coded_fmt_desc *desc = ctx->coded_fmt_desc;
> > +     ae4:	f9411814 	ldr	x20, [x0, #560]
> > +        struct rkvdec_dev *rkvdec = ctx->dev;
> > +     ae8:	f9418015 	ldr	x21, [x0, #768]
> > +        if (WARN_ON(!desc))
> > +     aec:	b4000654 	cbz	x20, bb4 <rkvdec_device_run+0xec>
> > +        ret = pm_runtime_resume_and_get(rkvdec->dev);
> > +     af0:	f943d2b6 	ldr	x22, [x21, #1952]
> > +        ret = __pm_runtime_resume(dev, RPM_GET_PUT);
> > +     af4:	aa0003f3 	mov	x19, x0
> > +     af8:	52800081 	mov	w1, #0x4                   	// #4
> > +     afc:	aa1603e0 	mov	x0, x22
> > +     b00:	94000000 	bl	0 <__pm_runtime_resume>
> > +        if (ret < 0) {
> > +     b04:	37f80340 	tbnz	w0, #31, b6c <rkvdec_device_run+0xa4>
> > +        dev_warn(rkvdec->dev, "Not good\n");
> > +     b08:	f943d2a0 	ldr	x0, [x21, #1952]
> > +     b0c:	90000001 	adrp	x1, 0 <rkvdec_try_ctrl-0x8>
> > +     b10:	91000021 	add	x1, x1, #0x0
> > +     b14:	94000000 	bl	0 <_dev_warn>
> > +        *bad = 1;
> > +     b18:	d2800001 	mov	x1, #0x0                   	// #0
> > +     ...
> > +
> > +
> > +  To find the matching line we just have to add `0x50` (from
> > +  `rkvdec_device_run+0x50`) to `0xac8` (from `0000000000000ac8
> > +  <rkvdec_device_run>:`), which yields `0xb18` corresponding with `*bad = 1`.
> > +
> > +**Copyright** |copy| 2024 : Collabora
> > diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..0008966c0862
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
> > @@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
> > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > +
> > +============
> > +Media Guides
> > +============
> > +
> > +.. toctree::
> > +    :caption: Table of Contents
> > +    :maxdepth: 1
> > +
> > +    debugging_issues
> > diff --git a/Documentation/media/index.rst b/Documentation/media/index.rst
> > index d056a9e99dca..5461876fc401 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/media/index.rst
> > +++ b/Documentation/media/index.rst
> > @@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ Media Subsystem Documentation
> >  .. toctree::
> >     :maxdepth: 2
> >  
> > +   guides/index
> >     ../userspace-api/media/index
> >     ../driver-api/media/index.rst
> >     ../admin-guide/media/index
> >
  

Patch

diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8fee749e7e6a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/media/guides/debugging_issues.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,477 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+.. include:: <isonum.txt>
+
+===================================================
+Debugging and tracing in the media subsystem
+===================================================
+
+This document serves as a starting point and lookup for debugging device
+drivers in the media subsystem.
+
+.. contents::
+    :depth: 3
+
+General debugging advice
+========================
+
+Depending on the issue, a different set of tools is available to track down the
+problem or even to realize whether there is one in the first place.
+
+As a first step you have to figure out what kind of issue you want to debug.
+Depending on the answer, your methodology and choice of tools may vary.
+Some typical issues are listed below. The list is not exhaustive.
+
+What is the issue?
+------------------
+1. Driver doesn't behave as expected
+
+   TBD
+
+2. Running out of memory
+
+  In this case you should use `Linux CLI tools <linux-tools_>`_ first to verify
+  whether the issue stems from the Kernel or from userspace.
+
+  TBD
+
+3. Kernel panic
+
+  The kernel provides a number of `tools <kernel_panic_analysis_tools_>`_ to
+  analyse a Kernel panic, use these first, once you have identified where the
+  error occurs you can further analyse the issue by adding `debug logs <Printk
+  & friends_>`_ to the codebase.
+
+4. Device doesn't probe
+
+   TBD
+
+5. Driver too slow
+
+  You should start with a `performance analysis <performance>`__, to pin down the problem area.
+
+Is timing a factor?
+-------------------
+
+It is important to understand if the problem you want to debug manifests itself
+consistently (i.e. given a set of inputs you always get the same, incorrect
+output), or inconsistently. If it manifests itself inconsistently, some timing
+factor might be at play. If inserting delays into the code does change the
+behavior, then quite likely timing is a factor.
+
+   In this case using a simple `printk`_ won't work, a similar alternative is
+   too use `trace_printk`_, which logs the debug messages to the trace file
+   instead of the kernel log.
+
+Do I have root access to the system?
+------------------------------------
+
+Are you easily able to replace the module in question or to install a new kernel?
+
+TBD
+
+.. _live_debug:
+
+Do I need to debug on a live system?
+------------------------------------
+
+When the kernel is compiled with `Ftrace`_, this tool might be a good start, as you can trace specific functions to dial down to the sequence of actions that causes the misbehavior.
+
+TBD
+
+Is the outcome flaky?
+---------------------
+
+We will call the outcome "flaky" if multiple iterations of the same routine with the same parameters result in different outcomes.
+
+TBD
+
+Available tools
+===============
+
+Printk & friends
+----------------
+
+These are derivatives of printf() with varying destination and support for being dynamically turned on or off, or lack thereof.
+
+.. _printk:
+
+**Simple printk**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The classic, this can be used to great effect for quick and dirty development
+of new modules or to extract arbitrary necessary data for troubleshooting.
+
+Prerequisite: `CONFIG_PRINTK` (usually enabled by default)
+
+**Pros**:
+
+- No need to learn anything, simple to use
+- Easy to modify exactly to your needs (formatting of the data (See: `format specifiers <../../core-api/printk-formats.html#printk-specifiers>`__), visibility in the log)
+- Can cause delays in the execution of the code (beneficial to confirm whether timing is a factor)
+
+**Cons**:
+
+- Requires rebuilding the kernel/module, (See: `live_debug`_)
+- Can cause delays in the execution of the code
+
+`Full documentation <../../core-api/printk-basics.rst>`__
+
+.. _trace_printk:
+
+**Trace_printk**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE` & `#include <linux/ftrace.h>`
+
+A tiny bit less comfortable to use than `printk`_, because you will have to
+read the messages from the trace file (See: `Reading the ftrace log`_ instead
+of from the kernel log, but very useful when printk adds unwanted delays into
+the code execution, causing issues to be flaky or hidden.)
+
+If the processing of this still causes timing issues then you can try `trace_puts()`.
+
+`Full Documentation <../../driver-api/basics.html#c.trace_printk>`__
+
+**dev_dbg / v4l2_dbg**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+- Difference between both?
+
+  - v4l2_dbg utilizes v4l2_printk under the hood, which further uses printk directly, thus it cannot be targeted by dynamic debug
+  - dev_dbg can be targeted by dynamic debug
+  - v4l2_dbg has a more specific prefix format for the media subsystem, while dev_dbg only highlights the driver name and the location of the log
+
+**The dev_debug module parameter**
+
+Every video device provides a `dev_debug` parameter, which allows to get further insights into the IOCTLs in the background.
+
+`Full documentation <../../driver-api/media/v4l2-dev.html#video-device-debugging>`__
+
+**When is it appropriate to leave a debug print in the code?**
+
+Permanent debug statements have to be useful for a developer to troubleshoot
+why the driver misbehaves. Judging that is a bit more of an art than a
+science, but some guidelines are in the `Coding style guide
+<../../process/coding-style.html#printing-kernel-messages>`__)
+
+**Custom printk**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Example:
+::
+
+  #define core_dbg(fmt, arg...) do { \
+	  if (core_debug) \
+		  printk(KERN_DEBUG pr_fmt("core: " fmt), ## arg); \
+	  } while (0)
+
+**When should you do this?**
+
+It is better to just use a `pr_debug()`, which can later be turned on/off with
+dynamic debug. Additionally, a lot of drivers activate these prints via a
+variable like `core_debug` set by a module parameter. However, Module
+parameters `are not recommended anymore
+<https://lkml.org/lkml/2024/3/27/163>`_.
+
+Dynamic debug
+-------------
+
+Mechanism to filter what ends up in the kernel log by dis-/en-abling log
+messages.
+
+Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_DEBUG`
+
+.. _valid_dyndbg_prints:
+
+Dynamic debug is only able to target:
+
+- `pr_debug()`
+- `dev_dbg()`
+- `print_hex_dump_debug()`
+- `print_hex_dump_bytes()`
+
+Therefore the usability of this tool is quite limited in the media subsystem,
+because, as of now, there is no uniform rule for adding debug prints to the codebase,
+resulting in a variety of ways these prints are implemented.
+
+Also, note that most debug statements are implemented as a variation of
+`dprintk`, which have to be activated via a parameter in respective module,
+dynamic debug is unable to do that step for you.
+
+Here is one example, that enables all available `pr_debug()`'s within the file:
+::
+
+  $ alias ddcmd='echo $* > /proc/dynamic_debug/control'
+  $ ddcmd '-p; file v4l2-h264.c +p'
+  $ grep =p /proc/dynamic_debug/control
+   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:372 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_b =p "ref_pic_list_b%u (cur_poc %u%c) %s"
+   drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-h264.c:333 [v4l2_h264]print_ref_list_p =p "ref_pic_list_p (cur_poc %u%c) %s\n"
+
+**When should you use this over** `Ftrace`_ **?**
+
+- When the code contains one of the :ref:`valid print statements <valid_dyndbg_prints_>`_ or when you have added multiple pr_debug() statements during development
+- When timing is not an issue, meaning if multiple `pr_debug()` statements in the code won't cause delays
+- When you care more about receiving specific log messages than tracing the pattern of how a function is called
+
+`Full documentation <../../admin-guide/dynamic-debug-howto.rst>`__
+
+Ftrace
+------
+
+Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE`
+
+Trace whenever the `rkvdec_try_ctrl` function is called
+::
+
+  $ cd /sys/kernel/tracing
+  $ echo function > /sys/kernel/tracing/current_tracer
+  $ echo rkvdec_try_ctrl > set_ftrace_filter
+  $ echo 1 > tracing_on
+  $ cat trace
+   h264parse0:sink-6359    [001] ...1. 172714.547523: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
+   h264parse0:sink-6359    [005] ...1. 172714.567386: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
+
+Find out from where the calls originate
+::
+
+  $ echo 1 > options/func_stack_trace
+   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967762: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
+   h264parse0:sink-6715    [002] ..... 172837.967773: <stack trace>
+   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
+   => try_or_set_cluster
+   => try_set_ext_ctrls_common
+   => try_set_ext_ctrls
+   => v4l2_s_ext_ctrls
+   => v4l_s_ext_ctrls
+   ...
+   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985747: rkvdec_try_ctrl <-try_or_set_cluster
+   h264parse0:sink-6715    [004] ..... 172837.985750: <stack trace>
+   => rkvdec_try_ctrl
+   => try_or_set_cluster
+   => v4l2_ctrl_request_setup
+   => rkvdec_run_preamble
+   => rkvdec_h264_run
+   => rkvdec_device_run
+   ...
+
+Trace the children of a function call and show the return values (requires config `FUNCTION_GRAPH_RETVAL`)
+::
+
+  echo function_graph > current_tracer
+  echo rkvdec_h264_run > set_graph_function
+  echo 4 > max_graph_depth
+  echo do_interrupt_handler mutex_* > set_graph_notrace
+  echo 1 > options/funcgraph-retval
+   ...
+   4)               |  rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec]() {
+   4)               |    v4l2_ctrl_find [videodev]() {
+   ...
+   4)               |    rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
+   4)   4.666 us    |      v4l2_m2m_next_buf [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0xffff000005782000 */
+   ...
+   4)               |      v4l2_ctrl_request_setup [videodev]() {
+   4)   4.667 us    |        media_request_object_find [mc](); /* = 0xffff000005e3aa98 */
+   4)   1.750 us    |        find_ref [videodev](); /* = 0xffff00000833b2a0 */
+   ...
+   4)   1.750 us    |      v4l2_m2m_buf_copy_metadata [v4l2_mem2mem](); /* = 0x0 */
+   4) ! 114.333 us  |    } /* rkvdec_run_preamble [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
+   4)   2.334 us    |    v4l2_h264_init_reflist_builder [v4l2_h264](); /* = 0x3e */
+   ...
+   4)               |    v4l2_h264_build_b_ref_lists [v4l2_h264]() {
+   ...
+   4)               |    rkvdec_run_postamble [rockchip_vdec]() {
+   ...
+   4) ! 444.208 us  |  } /* rkvdec_h264_run [rockchip_vdec] = 0x0 */
+
+**Reading the ftrace log**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The `trace` file can be read just like any other file (`cat`, `tail`, `head`,
+`vim`, etc.), the size of the file is limited by the `buffer_size_kb` (``echo
+1000 > buffer_size_kb``). The `trace_pipe` will behave similar to the `trace`
+file, but whenever you read from the file the content is consumed.
+
+**Kernelshark**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+`Kernelshark documentation <https://kernelshark.org/Documentation.html>`_
+
+`Full documentation <../../trace/ftrace.rst>`__
+
+DebugFS
+-------
+
+Prerequisite: `CONFIG_DEBUG_FS` & `#include <linux/debugfs.h>`
+
+DebugFS differs from the other approaches of debugging, as it doesn't write messages to the kernel log nor add traces to the code. Instead it allows the developer to handle a set of files.
+With these files you can either store values of variables or make register/memory dumps or you can make these files writable and modify values/settings in the driver.
+Possible use-cases among others:
+
+- Store register values
+- Keep track of variables
+- Store errors
+- Store settings
+- Toggle a setting like debug on/off
+- Error injection
+
+This is especially useful, when the size of a data dump would be hard to digest as
+part of the general kernel log (for example when dumping raw bitstream data) or
+when you are not interested in all the values all the time, but with the
+possibility to inspect them.
+
+The general idea is:
+
+- Create a directory during probe (`struct dentry *parent = debugfs_create_dir("my_driver", NULL);`)
+- Create a file (`debugfs_create_u32("my_value", 444, parent, &my_variable);`)
+
+  - In this example the file is found in `/sys/kernel/debug/my_driver/my_value` (with read permissions for user/group/all)
+  - any update of `my_variable` will update the value in the file
+
+- Clean up the folder when removing the device (`debugfs_remove_recursive(parent);`)
+
+`Full documentation <../../filesystems/debugfs.rst>`__
+
+Perf & alternatives
+-------------------
+
+The tools mentioned above provide ways to inspect kernel code, results, variable values, etc.
+Sometimes you have to find out first where to look and for those cases a box of performance tracking tools can help you to frame the issue.
+
+.. _performance:
+
+**Why should you do a performance analysis?**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+A performance analysis is a good first step when among other reasons:
+
+- you cannot define the issue
+- you do not know where it occurs
+- the running system should not be interrupted or it is a remote system, where you cannot install a new module/kernel
+
+.. _linux-tools:
+
+**How to do a simple analysis with linux tools?**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+For the start of a performance analysis, you can start with the usual tools like:
+
+- `top` / `htop` / `atop` (*get an overview of the system load, see spikes on specific processes*)
+- `mpstat -P ALL` (*look at the load distribution among CPUs*)
+- `iostat -x` (*observe input and output devices utilization and performance*)
+- `vmstat` (*overview of memory usage on the system*)
+- `pidstat` (*similar to* `vmstat` *but per process, to dial it down to the target*)
+- `strace -tp $PID` (*once you know the process, you can figure out how it communicates with the Kernel*)
+
+These should help to figure out restrict the areas to look at sufficiently.
+
+**Diving deeper with perf**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The **perf** tool provides a series of metrics and events to further dial down on issues.
+
+Prerequisite: TBD
+
+Gather statistics data for a decoding job: (This example is on a RK3399 SoC with the rkvdec codec driver using the `fluster test suite <https://github.com/fluendo/fluster>`__)
+::
+
+  perf stat -d python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1
+  ...
+  Performance counter stats for 'python3 fluster.py run -d GStreamer-H.264-V4L2SL-Gst1.0 -ts JVT-AVC_V1 -tv AUD_MW_E -j1 -v':
+
+           7794.23 msec task-clock:u                     #    0.697 CPUs utilized
+                 0      context-switches:u               #    0.000 /sec
+                 0      cpu-migrations:u                 #    0.000 /sec
+             11901      page-faults:u                    #    1.527 K/sec
+         882671556      cycles:u                         #    0.113 GHz                         (95.79%)
+         711708695      instructions:u                   #    0.81  insn per cycle              (95.79%)
+          10581935      branches:u                       #    1.358 M/sec                       (15.13%)
+           6871144      branch-misses:u                  #   64.93% of all branches             (95.79%)
+         281716547      L1-dcache-loads:u                #   36.144 M/sec                       (95.79%)
+           9019581      L1-dcache-load-misses:u          #    3.20% of all L1-dcache accesses   (95.79%)
+   <not supported>      LLC-loads:u
+   <not supported>      LLC-load-misses:u
+
+      11.180830431 seconds time elapsed
+
+       1.502318000 seconds user
+       6.377221000 seconds sys
+
+The availability of events and metrics depends on the system you are running.
+
+`Full documentation <https://perf.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page>`__
+
+**Perfetto**
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+TBD
+
+.. _error_checking:
+
+KASAN, UBSAN, lockdep and other error checkers
+----------------------------------------------
+
+TBD
+
+.. _kernel_panic_analysis_tools:
+
+Kernel panic analysis tools
+---------------------------
+
+  To analyse the crash dump please use `Kdump` & `Kexec`.
+
+  TBD
+
+  `Full documentation <../../admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst>`__
+
+  In order to find the corresponding line in the code you can use `faddr2line
+  <https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/latest/source/scripts/faddr2line>`__, note
+  that you need to enable `CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO` for that to work.
+
+  An alternative to using `faddr2line` is the use of `objdump` (and it's
+  derivatives for the different platforms like `aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump`),
+  take this line as an example:
+
+  `[  +0.000240]  rkvdec_device_run+0x50/0x138 [rockchip_vdec]`.
+
+  We can find the corresponding line of code by executing:
+  ::
+
+    aarch64-linux-gnu-objdump -dS drivers/staging/media/rkvdec/rockchip-vdec.ko | grep rkvdec_device_run\>: -A 40
+    0000000000000ac8 <rkvdec_device_run>:
+     ac8:	d503201f 	nop
+     acc:	d503201f 	nop
+    {
+     ad0:	d503233f 	paciasp
+     ad4:	a9bd7bfd 	stp	x29, x30, [sp, #-48]!
+     ad8:	910003fd 	mov	x29, sp
+     adc:	a90153f3 	stp	x19, x20, [sp, #16]
+     ae0:	a9025bf5 	stp	x21, x22, [sp, #32]
+        const struct rkvdec_coded_fmt_desc *desc = ctx->coded_fmt_desc;
+     ae4:	f9411814 	ldr	x20, [x0, #560]
+        struct rkvdec_dev *rkvdec = ctx->dev;
+     ae8:	f9418015 	ldr	x21, [x0, #768]
+        if (WARN_ON(!desc))
+     aec:	b4000654 	cbz	x20, bb4 <rkvdec_device_run+0xec>
+        ret = pm_runtime_resume_and_get(rkvdec->dev);
+     af0:	f943d2b6 	ldr	x22, [x21, #1952]
+        ret = __pm_runtime_resume(dev, RPM_GET_PUT);
+     af4:	aa0003f3 	mov	x19, x0
+     af8:	52800081 	mov	w1, #0x4                   	// #4
+     afc:	aa1603e0 	mov	x0, x22
+     b00:	94000000 	bl	0 <__pm_runtime_resume>
+        if (ret < 0) {
+     b04:	37f80340 	tbnz	w0, #31, b6c <rkvdec_device_run+0xa4>
+        dev_warn(rkvdec->dev, "Not good\n");
+     b08:	f943d2a0 	ldr	x0, [x21, #1952]
+     b0c:	90000001 	adrp	x1, 0 <rkvdec_try_ctrl-0x8>
+     b10:	91000021 	add	x1, x1, #0x0
+     b14:	94000000 	bl	0 <_dev_warn>
+        *bad = 1;
+     b18:	d2800001 	mov	x1, #0x0                   	// #0
+     ...
+
+
+  To find the matching line we just have to add `0x50` (from
+  `rkvdec_device_run+0x50`) to `0xac8` (from `0000000000000ac8
+  <rkvdec_device_run>:`), which yields `0xb18` corresponding with `*bad = 1`.
+
+**Copyright** |copy| 2024 : Collabora
diff --git a/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..0008966c0862
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/media/guides/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+============
+Media Guides
+============
+
+.. toctree::
+    :caption: Table of Contents
+    :maxdepth: 1
+
+    debugging_issues
diff --git a/Documentation/media/index.rst b/Documentation/media/index.rst
index d056a9e99dca..5461876fc401 100644
--- a/Documentation/media/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/media/index.rst
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@  Media Subsystem Documentation
 .. toctree::
    :maxdepth: 2
 
+   guides/index
    ../userspace-api/media/index
    ../driver-api/media/index.rst
    ../admin-guide/media/index